The linker is called as follows:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Usage: ld65 [options] module ... Short options: -( Start a library group -) End a library group -C name Use linker config file -D sym=val Define a symbol -L path Specify a library search path -Ln name Create a VICE label file -S addr Set the default start address -V Print the linker version -h Help (this text) -m name Create a map file -o name Name the default output file -t sys Set the target system -u sym Force an import of symbol `sym' -v Verbose mode -vm Verbose map file Long options: --cfg-path path Specify a config file search path --config name Use linker config file --dbgfile name Generate debug information --define sym=val Define a symbol --dump-config name Dump a builtin configuration --end-group End a library group --force-import sym Force an import of symbol `sym' --help Help (this text) --lib file Link this library --lib-path path Specify a library search path --mapfile name Create a map file --module-id id Specify a module id --obj file Link this object file --obj-path path Specify an object file search path --start-addr addr Set the default start address --start-group Start a library group --target sys Set the target system --version Print the linker version ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Here is a description of all the command line options:
Start a library group. The libraries specified within a group are searched multiple times to resolve crossreferences within the libraries. Normally, crossreferences are only resolved within a library, that is the library is searched multiple times. Libraries specified later on the command line cannot reference otherwise unreferenced symbols in libraries specified earlier, because the linker has already handled them. Library groups are a solution for this problem, because the linker will search repeatedly through all libraries specified in the group, until all possible open symbol references have been satisfied.
End a library group. See the explanation of the
Print the short option summary shown above.
-m name, --mapfile name
This option (which needs an argument that will used as a filename for the generated map file) will cause the linker to generate a map file. The map file does contain a detailed overview over the modules used, the sizes for the different segments, and a table containing exported symbols.
The -o switch is used to give the name of the default output file. Depending on your output configuration, this name may NOT be used as name for the output file. However, for the builtin configurations, this name is used for the output file name.
-t sys, --target sys
The argument for the -t switch is the name of the target system. Since this
switch will activate a builtin configuration, it may not be used together
-C option. The following target
systems are currently supported:
There are a few more targets defined but neither of them is actually supported.
-u sym[:addrsize], --force-import sym[:addrsize]
Force an import of a symbol. While object files are always linked to the
output file, regardless if there are any references, object modules from
libraries get only linked in if an import can be satisfied by this module.
--fore-import option may be used to add a reference to a symbol and
as a result force linkage of the module that exports the identifier.
The name of the symbol may optionally be followed by a colon and an address size specifier. If no address size is specified, the default address size for the target machine is used.
Please note that the symbol name needs to have the internal representation, meaning you have to prepend an underline for C identifiers.
Using the -v option, you may enable more output that may help you to locate problems. If an undefined symbol is encountered, -v causes the linker to print a detailed list of the references (that is, source file and line) for this symbol.
Must be used in conjunction with
(generate map file). Normally the map file will not include empty segments
and sections, or unreferenced symbols. Using this option, you can force the
linker to include all this information into the map file.
This gives the name of an output config file to use. See section 4 for more
information about config files. -C may not be used together with
-D sym=value, --define sym=value
This option allows to define an external symbol on the command line. Value
may start with a '$' sign or with
0x for hexadecimal values,
otherwise a leading zero denotes octal values. See also the
SYMBOLS section in the configuration file.
-L path, --lib-path path
Specify a library search path. This option may be used more than once. It
adds a directory to the search path for library files. Libraries specified
without a path are searched in current directory, in the directory given in
LD65_LIB environment variable, and in the list of directories
This option allows you to create a file that contains all global labels and
may be loaded into VICE emulator using the
ll (load label) command. You
may use this to debug your code with VICE. Note: Older versions had some
bugs in the label code. If you have problems, please get the latest VICE
-S addr, --start-addr addr
Using -S you may define the default starting address. If and how this address is used depends on the config file in use. For the builtin configurations, only the "none", "apple2" and "apple2enh" systems honor an explicit start address, all other builtin config provide their own.
This option print the version number of the linker. If you send any suggestions or bugfixes, please include this number.
Specify a config file search path. This option may be used more than once.
It adds a directory to the search path for config files. A config file given
-C option that has no path in
its name is searched in the current directory, in the directory given in the
LD65_CFG environment variable, and in the list of directories specified
Specify an output file for debug information. Available information will be
written to this file. Using the
-g option for the compiler and assembler
will increase the amount of information available. Please note that debug
information generation is currently being developed, so the format of the
file and its contents are subject to change without further notice.
Links a library to the output. Use this command line option instead of just naming the library file, if the linker is not able to determine the file type because of an unusual extension.
Links an object file to the output. Use this command line option instead of just naming the object file, if the linker is not able to determine the file type because of an unusual extension.
Specify an object file search path. This option may be used more than once.
It adds a directory to the search path for object files. An object file
passed to the linker that has no path in its name is searched in current
directory, in the directory given in the
LD65_OBJ environment variable,
and in the list of directories specified using